What To Do When You’ve Lost Your Philippine Land Title

by | Nov 3, 2018 | Property Law, Title Issues

 

If you’ve lost your Philippine Land Title and cannot find it, you will need to go to court to get a new copy.

A young man holding a telescope looking for a missing land title.

Have you lost your Original Philippine Land Title?

This post explains:

  • the detailed, step by step process you need to go through
  • Actual documentary requirements and how to comply with them
  • Practical advice from your point of view (no unnecessary legalese, I swear).

While the process might seem inconvenient, replacing your lost owner’s title is very important to sell, lease or otherwise maximize the property.

Introduction to Philippine Land Titles

A Philippine Land Title is the primary document that proves your ownership.

It is generally called an owner’s title. Depending on the circumstances, it can more specifically be called:

  • Original Certificate of Title – issued to owners when the land is first registered
  • Owner’s Duplicate Copy of the Transfer Certificate of Title – issued to subsequent owners after the registration.
  • Condominium Certificate of Title – issued to owners of condominium units

All these different names still really just mean that it is an owner’s title.

A document showing the three types of Owner's Certificate of Titles: the Original Certificate of Title, the Owner’s Duplicate Copy of the Transfer Certificate of Title and the  Condominium Certificate of Title.

An original land title is the best evidence of ownership of the property.

Now, you might say that an owner’s title isn’t important since you already live on the property.

This couldn’t be further from the truth.

It is difficult to sell, mortgage or lease your property when you don’t have the title. It is also difficult for your property to be inherited by your children. Essentially, you need the title to transfer or use the land for more than your personal residence.

Reissuance is Needed for Lost Philippine Owner’s Land Titles

An owner’s title can be lost in many ways.

I’ve come across instances of fire, flood and theft. I’ve heard stories of simple misplacement. And in a battle versus termites and often fragile land titles, termites won.

A picture showing the common reasons of flood, fire and termites for losing the original copy of Philippine land title.

Has your Owner’s Title been destroyed?

In all these situations, the only way to replace your lost owner’s title is through a court process called reissuance. It is a process laid down by the law in Sec 109 P.D. 1529 and there is no other way around it.

Just a few notes.

Reissuance shouldn’t be confused with reconstitution.

Reissuance is when your owner’s title has been destroyed while reconstitution is when the title to your land held by the Registry of Deeds is also destroyed. Reissuance is what we discuss in detail here.

A man holding a certificate of land title with a dark red seal on the bottom left corner and the words

You’ll mostly likely have to go to court court to replace your missing Owner’s Title.

 Reissuance shouldn’t be resorted to if the owner’s title is with a 3rd person.

Resorting to reissuance when the title is in the hands of a 3rd party like a lender simply to cancel the debt means that there is a risk that the new title will be declared invalid. [G.R. 170539, Jul 2008]

Reissuance Process

A picture showing a person holding an envelope and a certificate of title with the words

You need to file the court decision with the Registry in order to start the processing of your new owner’s title

You’ll find the step by step process below.

There is really no way to replace a lost title except through a court case.

Quick Facts

Case:                   Reissuance of Lost Owner’s Title

Timeline:            1 – 1 ½ years, depending on the court’s schedule

Cost:                    Court Fees, Registry of Deeds Fees, Lawyer’s Fees

Testimony:         At least once, or more as needed by the court

Documents:       Annotated Loss on Certified True Copy of Title, Tax Declarations and Assessments, Other documents required by the court.

File an affidavit of loss with the registrar of deeds

An Affidavit of Loss identifies the property through its title number and its tax declaration. It explains how the title was lost to the Registry of Deeds.

It is created with your attorney and the filed with the Registry of Deeds where the property is located.

A picture showing a document with the title

You’ll need to start with an Affidavit of Loss.

It is important to file with the Registry of Deeds. When people inquire about the property with the Registry, they will be informed that the owner’s title has been lost. This prevents unscrupulous people from claiming they are the owners.

Also take this opportunity to gather essential court documents that you will need, for instance, the Certified True Copy of Title, among several others.

A man holding a pile of documents with the words

You’ll need many documents to prove your ownership at court.

Registry of Deed filing fees to register with the Affidavit of Loss can vary. This will be higher if you are also gathering other essential court documents.

File with the regional trial court.

The next step would be to create your petition with your lawyer requesting the court to issue a new owner’s copy.

There will be several documentary attachments, all proving that you are the owner:

  • Affidavit of Loss that you filed in step 1.
  • Certified True Copy of Title showing your name which you can get from the registry of deeds
  • Tax Declaration and all its attachments from the municipal hall where the land is located
  • Other documents and requirements complying with the rules of court, which your attorney will be aware of.
    A picture showing a checklist of documents that the land owner needs to gather to prove before the court that he is the owner of the property.

    Your petition at court must have all the documents and explain why the title was lost.

It may be difficult to get the documents required but it is important to complete them and follow what your attorney advises. It is on the strength of this documentary proof that your case will be decided.

This petition will be filed with the Regional Trial Court where the land is located.

Filing fees and attorney’s fees will be paid.

Testify in Court

You should ideally go to Court at least once to testify to the facts of the case.

You may have your co-owner do this but the point is that the court needs to hear from your as to the validity of the facts.

A picture showing a checklist of documents that the land owner needs to gather to prove before the court that he is the owner of the property.

Your petition at court must have all the documents and explain why the title was lost.

Note that this primer is built from your point of view. This is what is of interest to you – what you need to accomplish, review and gather and when you need to appear in court.

However, your attorney will also be complying with other court orders and requirements for this case.

Court Decision

A picture showing the scale of justice and a gavel right below it

The Court will issue a Decision based on the evidence you’ve presented.

The Court will decide based on the Evidence you and your attorney submitted.

If all goes well and if you have strong documentary proof, your case will likely be approved.

The Court’s Decision will become final when no-one challenges the case. A case can be challenged when someone who has a share in the land or the city prosecutor objects.

Filing of the Court Decision at the Registry of Deeds

After the Court issues its decision, you need to register it with the registry of deeds.

This will start the process to get your new owner’s title.

This is often a bothersome process as it can necessitate several trips. You will also need to pay to register with the Registry of Deeds.

They will process your request and you will finally be issued a new owner’s title.

Summary

As promised, this is a primer on how to get a new owner’s title and gives you the information that is really pertinent to you in terms of process, documents and fees.

Your lawyer will handle other court requirements as they come along, but these have to deal more with complying with Philippine law or orders of the court. Your lawyer will also guide you as to additional requirements that may vary depending on the specific facts of your case.

A picture showing a lawyer and the land owner shaking hands

Choose a lawyer you trust

Do choose a lawyer you can trust going into this process.

A good lawyer will keep you updated and show you the written submissions to the court.

Do not go through a middle man or someone who has “connections”. There are so many who are victimized by unscrupulous people claiming they can easily issue a new land title. This is untrue and you may lose a lot of money and be faced with a court case against you if things go badly.

Three men with a large red cross on the man in the middle

Do not hire a middleman! They can cause you a great deal of trouble.

Do things aboveboard and you will have nothing to fear.

In addition, your case will often be much faster if you go through the process with a good lawyer. We’ve heard promised “quick fixes” take years!

As you can see the process is straightforward.

Although it will depend on the facts of your particular case, your case will likely succeed if:

  • You have all your documents and strong proof
  • You are involved in the process and can provide information

With this, the court will likely grant your request and you will get your new owner’s title without too much further trouble.

34 Comments

  1. Amelia

    My question is how can I replace a title that I lost. The title is still on my fathers name deceased. We had a division of property through succession. My mother become administratrix but she pass away too. Title was left to me but I lost it on my constant moving.
    Can you advice me what to do.

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      Sent you an email.

      Reply
      • Lois

        Dear sir / mam,
        Im the buyer of a house and lot. However, the sellers owners copy is lost.
        Deceased owner
        How many months take the processing?
        Already negotiating with the heirs.
        Can it be transferred to the buyer from the deceased owner thru jurisdiction process? How long?

        Thank you

      • Lawyers in the Philippines

        Sent an email.

  2. Darlene

    The land title was burned, how can we apply for new title? (The land title was named to an cooperative who is now desolved)

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      Sent you an email.

      Reply
  3. Caroline

    How long to be able to get a original copy of the lost title?

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      Sent an email.

      Reply
      • Katrina

        I lost my grandmother’s original.land title last april 30, 2019. My grandma passed away last dec 25, 2018..my father was her only child.my father didnt know..what really had happened.my question is can i as granddaughter can apply for an affidavit of loss or petition in behalf of my father..hope you can answer my question.this incident bothered me so much.

      • Lawyers in the Philippines

        Sent an email.

  4. April

    I lost the title of the property that was donated to me. The person who executed the deed of donation is dead. How can I apply for a new one?

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      Sent an email.

      Reply
  5. sette

    my sister bought a partial land in province, the land doesn’t have title, only land rights. how we can apply for a land title?

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      Sent an email.

      Reply
  6. Laarni

    We cannot locate our land title. The title was named under my grandmother’s five children in which three is already deceased. We have a deed of sale notarized before the death of one of the last deceased wherein I am the buyer. Can I file for the affidavit of loss with Register of Deeds? Do we need SPA on the heirs of the deceased before we can file for reissuance? Thank you.

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      Sent an email.

      Reply
  7. Jiro

    Dear Sir/Madam,

    Thank you for your very informative article.

    My grandmother has a property in Bulacan, wherein she and her brother-in-law are named in the title. Unfortunately, both of them are deceased, and passed away more than 35 years ago. The TCT was never transferred to the children’s (my mother among them) names, and it is only now we are trying to do so. However, over the years, my mother lost the Owner’s Duplicate Title, and now the heirs are unable to sell the property.

    We already have an extra-judicial settlement signed by all the heirs, as well as the affidavit of publication. My question is, if they decide to sell a portion of the property using an Extra-judicial Settlement of Real Estate with Absolute Sale, can this document be used to initiate a re-issuance of the Owner’s Duplicate Title or effect an immediate transfer of the title to the heirs and the buyer in the absence of the Owner’s Duplicate Title?

    Thank you.

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      Sent an email.

      Reply
  8. Anonymous

    i bought the land from the owner but the original title was lost. i transferred already in my name to BIR . the REgister of Deeds needs the original title what shall i do?
    thank u

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      Sent an email.

      Reply
  9. Nicole

    GOOD MORNING. SIR/MA’AM MY MOTHER USED TO HAVE THE DEED OF THE HOUSE. AND IT WAS LOST WHEN BOTH OF MY PARENTS DIED. NOW MY AUNT AND UNCLES TOLD ME THAT THEY ALSO DON’T KNOW WHO HOLDS THE LAND TITLE SINCE MY GRANDFATHER DIED. WHAT ACTION SHOULD I DO TO BE ABLE TO PROVIDE A COPY OF THE DEED? IS A MUNICIPAL COPY OF A DEED IS POSSIBLE, FOR US TO PROVIDE A COPY OF THE LAND TITLE ?

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      You have to go through a court case.

      There is no other way to get the title.

      Without the title, you cannot transfer it to your name.,

      Reply
    • angelie cruz

      File for Annotation of the Affidavit of Loss.
      Request a Certified True Copy (with annotation of loss).
      File a petition at the Regional Trial Court.
      Attend the jurisdictional hearing.
      Submit proof or evidence.
      Wait for the issuance of a Court Decision.
      Wait for the Certificate of Finality to be issued.
      File a Court Decision and Certificate of Finality at the Registry of Deeds.
      Wait for the issuance of Replacement of Owner’s Land Title.

      If only you want a certified thru copy you can get at the nearest Registry of deeds where is your property registered.

      Reply
  10. Jerico

    We lost land title. How long will it take to have a new title?

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      Sent an email.

      Reply
  11. Joel

    we’re trying to buy a lot that the title still on her parents name . They went to RD to check if there’s any outstanding regarding to the property.
    RD informed them that the current title hold by the owner has cancelled as there a new title under her name so they advised them to go to DAR to collect the new title. However, the new title in DAR has lost due to flood and DAR advised them to file a reconstitution to issue a new title.

    Does DAR should re-issue the title since the new title wasn’t issued/release to the owner and it was lost on their possession and not the owner who lost it?

    Appreciate your advise on what the owner should do for them to sell it to us.

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      Hi:

      It is the owner of the property who will file a case for reconstitution if the property title at the Registry of Deeds is lost.

      Reply
  12. JL

    Are we able to get Certified True Copy of the TCT if the title is lost?
    Or a Certified True copy of TCT can be use to transfer the title to the buyer but bought the land thru deed of sales?

    Reply
    • Lawyers in the Philippines

      You will need the Original Title, not the Certified Teue Copy of Title.

      Reply
  13. Neri

    Good day to you sir/madam! Unfortunately, the land title under my mother’s name had been destroyed by termites. She would like to request for reissuance of the title but she is already bedridden. What process can we take so that she can still have a copy of her land title?

    Reply
    • Atty. Francesco Britancio

      Sent an email.

      Reply
  14. Glenda

    How much does it cost to file for a lost original title in the Philippines?

    Reply
    • Atty. Francesco Britancio

      Sent an email.

      Reply
  15. angelie cruz

    Steps for reissuance of title
    File for Annotation of the Affidavit of File for Annotation of the Affidavit of Loss.
    Request a Certified True Copy (with annotation of loss).
    File a petition at the Regional Trial Court.
    Attend the jurisdictional hearing.
    Submit proof or evidence.
    Wait for the issuance of a Court Decision.
    Wait for the Certificate of Finality to be issued.
    File a Court Decision and Certificate of Finality at the Registry of Deeds.
    Wait for the issuance of Replacement of Owner’s Land Title.

    Your mother was still alive so maybe if your mother can still appoint a SPA on her behalf . She can choose one on her siblings to be her representative or SPA either all siblings will decide on it who will be your mother representative.

    Reply

Trackbacks/Pingbacks

  1. How to Reconstitute a Philippine Land Title - Lawyers in the Philippines - […] instead, you are looking to replace a lost owner’s title, read this post for detailed […]
  2. Philippine Land Title Search - Lawyers in the Philippines - […] what you’re looking for? If you have lost your owner’s title and are trying to replace it, check out…

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